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Horn of Africa Learning and Accountability Portal

Horn of Africa Crisis: Evaluations of the current drought response

 TitleAgenciesDate(s)Resource type
 Cash-for-work in Somalia: linking relief to recoveryFAOPublished: February 2012Factsheets and summaries

 

In complex emergency situations such as that in Somalia, marred by violence, destitution and famine, the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has managed to implement a large cashfor-
work (CFW) programme. The programme provides emergency relief while building the base for future
recovery. This concept note aims at gathering lessons learned from FAO - Somalia’s experience in designing
and implementing a CFW programme.

 Comparative Study of Emergency Cash Coordination Mechanisms CaLP, Groupe URDPublished: May 2012Research, reports and studies

 

Based principally on three cases studies (Pakistan, Haiti, and the Horn of Africa), the objective of this comparative study is to draw on lessons learnt for better coordination of cash transfer programmes (CTP) in future emergencies and to help build the CaLP’s advocacy strategy on cash coordination at global level. This study has been commissioned by the CaLP and conducted by Groupe URD.

 DFID's Humanitarian Emergency Response in the Horn of AfricaIndependent Commission for Aid ImpactPublished: September 2012Research, reports and studies

To assess the value for money and effectiveness of DFID’s humanitarian
emergency response in the Horn of Africa, from early warning to the transition to
longer-term development.

We will specifically focus on:

  • the linkage between early warning, early action and longer-term preventative interventions;
  • how intended beneficiaries’ needs were identified;
  • the effectiveness of supply chain management to meet these needs;
  • DFID’s role in leadership and co-ordination of aid and evidence of innovation;
    and
  • how DFID has applied learning from previous interventions in the Horn of
    Africa and what it has learned to help build resilience and prevent future
    emergencies.
 Disasters Emergency Committee - East Africa Crisis Appeal Ethiopia Real-Time Evaluation ReportDEC, Humanitarian CoalitionCompleted: January 2012
Published: January 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives:

1. To review Member Agencies’ response to the crisis in Ethiopia and Kenya using the DEC Accountability Priorities as the basis of the RTE framework. Specific questions for consideration relating to each priority:

Priority 1: We use our resources efficiently and effectively
Priority 2: We achieve intended programme objectives in accordance with agreed humanitarian standards, principles and behaviours
Priority 3: We are accountable to disaster affected populations
Priority 4: We learn from our experience – taking learning from one emergency to the next

2. To review the extent to which agencies correctly identified the key risks to a quality disaster response and implemented suitable mitigating actions.

3. To advise on any programme adjustments or modification and highlight any unmet needs or unnecessary overlap that should be addressed in Phase 2.

Between all 14 DEC agencies there are 30+ programmes across four countries affected by the drought and conflict in East Africa: Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan. DEC member agencies are currently preparing their plans for the 18 months of Phase 2 of the response.

 Disasters Emergency Committee - East Africa Crisis Appeal Kenya Real-Time Evaluation ReportDEC, Humanitarian CoalitionCompleted: January 2012
Published: January 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives:

1. To review Member Agencies’ response to the crisis in Ethiopia and Kenya using the DEC Accountability Priorities as the basis of the RTE framework. Specific questions for consideration relating to each priority:

Priority 1: We use our resources efficiently and effectively
Priority 2: We achieve intended programme objectives in accordance with agreed humanitarian standards, principles and behaviours
Priority 3: We are accountable to disaster affected populations
Priority 4: We learn from our experience – taking learning from one emergency to the next

2. To review the extent to which agencies correctly identified the key risks to a quality disaster response and implemented suitable mitigating actions.

3. To advise on any programme adjustments or modification and highlight any unmet needs or unnecessary overlap that should be addressed in Phase 2.

Between all 14 DEC agencies there are 30+ programmes across four countries affected by the drought and conflict in East Africa: Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan. DEC member agencies are currently preparing their plans for the 18 months of Phase 2 of the response.

 Disasters Emergency Committee's (DEC) - East Africa Crisis Appeal Synthesis ReportDEC, Humanitarian CoalitionCompleted: January 2012
Published: January 2012
Research, reports and studies

Objectives:

1. To review Member Agencies’ response to the crisis in Ethiopia and Kenya using the DEC Accountability Priorities as the basis of the RTE framework. Specific questions for consideration relating to each priority:

Priority 1: We use our resources efficiently and effectively
Priority 2: We achieve intended programme objectives in accordance with agreed humanitarian standards, principles and behaviours
Priority 3: We are accountable to disaster affected populations
Priority 4: We learn from our experience – taking learning from one emergency to the next

2. To review the extent to which agencies correctly identified the key risks to a quality disaster response and implemented suitable mitigating actions.

3. To advise on any programme adjustments or modification and highlight any unmet needs or unnecessary overlap that should be addressed in Phase 2.

Between all 14 DEC agencies there are 30+ programmes across four countries affected by the drought and conflict in East Africa: Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan. DEC member agencies are currently preparing their plans for the 18 months of Phase 2 of the response.

 Djibouti Consolidated Appeal Review 2012UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: November 2011Programme/project reviews

 

Djibouti has now faced six consecutive years of drought and serious rainfall deficit. Although rainfall fluctuations and drought are intrinsic features of the country’s semi-arid climate, the current drought far exceeds normal variation. Since 2007, rainfall has been less than 75% of average, and this has had a direct and life-threatening impact upon the most vulnerable people of Djibouti, particularly pastoralists and rural dwellers. The drought-related humanitarian context in Djibouti is mainly characterized by worsening food insecurity, a situation which culminated in the 2010-2011 drought disaster. Food production from both livestock and crops was extremely poor. Rainfall was not enough to regenerate and produce sufficient pasture for livestock, nor were the rains adequate to replenish water sources. This situation was further compounded by the drastic global rise in staple food prices, which further deteriorated the coping mechanisms of the most vulnerable among Djibouti’s population.
The drought led many rural households to migrate within their region or, principally, towards the capital, Djibouti Ville. Households that could not afford to migrate suffered a loss of 70% to 100% of their livestock. The number of cultivated plots dropped sharply in the last four years of drought. Increased rural-urban migration has now concentrated 70.6% of the population in urban areas, including 58% in the capital. This drought-induced rural to urban migration has led to an increase in settlements around the cities. Most of the urban households affected by malnutrition and water-borne diseases are from these areas. The continued significant influx of refugees from Somalia and Ethiopia into Djibouti in 2010 and 2011 has also affected the country and led to a significant increase of humanitarian needs in both rural and urban areas.
This overall situation was itself the impetus of the 2010-2011 Drought Appeal, which this Consolidated Appeal now replaces. A total of 206,000 vulnerable people have been identified in Djibouti as now being affected by the drought and its impact, and have been targeted for the emergency humanitarian assistance programmes in this Appeal. This figure includes 120,000 rural people, 60,000 urban poor, and 26,000 refugees, and is a very substantial increase of 85% compared to the 120,000 people targeted in the 2010-2011 Drought Appeal. (A planning figure of 16,400 migrants is not included in the overall total.)

 

 Drought 2011: How Kenya RespondedIFRCPublished: March 2012Research, reports and studies

 

The Kenya Red Cross Society operational response to the 2011 drought has been documented in
their operational updates in July, August, September and November and will be assessed in detail
next month for the mid-term evaluation. The following serves as a backgrounder and overview of their
response during 2011.
The challenges that the Kenya Red Cross faced in 2011, including a drought, floods, landslides and
accidents, were tackled with new partnerships and innovative solutions. Kenyans responded through
a volunteer network of 70,000 people and a nationwide fundraising campaign, known as the
Kenyans for Kenya initiative. KRCS fostered an increasing number of private sector partnerships,
and is implementing more market-based approaches in attempt to tackle the underlying causes of
poverty. The Kenyans for Kenya initiative mobilized over five million dollars in less than three weeks,
with the majority of Kenyans donating through their unique mobile money transfer system, M-Pesa.
The money raised and emergency relief effort provided frontline life-saving assistance but will not
alone address the root causes of the crisis.
KRCS volunteers and branch staff across the country are working now to build the resilience of
people living in drought-affected areas to adapt to the rapid climatic, demographic, and socio
economic changes occurring across the country. Humanitarian assistance is departing from
symptomatic ‘traditional’ relief to long-term measures that will reduce dependence on food aid. An
increasing number of sustainable solutions are emerging around the country where former
pastoralists are cultivating crops and selling off surplus.

 Early Warning - Delayed Response? Lessons from IFRC Horn of Africa Appeals 2008-2010IFRCCompleted: January 2011
Published: 2011
Programme/project reviews

This report is based on a review of four international Appeals of the IFRC in the Horn of Africa, from 2008 to 2010. The review took a food security lens to broadly assess the whole ‘Appeal’ process, from assessment and analysis, project/programme design, resource mobilisation, coordination, implementation and impact. Over fifty interviews were conducted with RCRC staff, in Geneva, Kenya, Djibouti and Ethiopia, as well as by telephone. Branches and beneficiary communities were also visited in Kenya and Ethiopia.

The scope of this review is broad given the number of issues, actors, institutional layers and different contexts within the Movement (different branches, NS’s, PNS’s, IFRC and ICRC). As such, and in order to maximise the potential readership and impact of the report it has been
kept short and with the purpose of attempting to bring out emerging issues of relevance to the wider Movement. It is structured into 4 sections: Key Findings; Emerging Issues and Recommendations; Background to the Region; Analysis of Appeals.

 Evaluation of Christian Aid's East Africa Crisis responseChristian AidPublished: June 2013Evaluation reports

Overall objective- To assess the effectiveness of the DEC funded programme, identify impacts that the projects have achieved and provide recommendations to Christian Aid and DEC to inform future responses in the region. Specific objectives- 1. Analyse the efficiency , timeliness and effective use of resources 2. Assess the extent to which proposed objectives and outcomes have been achieved 3. Assess the extent to which cross-cutting issues, Code of Conduct standards, HAP, Sphere, gender and HIV were respected 4. Analyse the level of involvement of and accountability to beneficiaries 5. Assess and document the impacts that the appeal funded projects have had on the beneficiaries including documenting case studies for each country 6. Assess the extent that past lessons and DEC RTE or CA past evaluation recommendations were fulfilled 7. Based on the findings, provide key recommendations to Christian Aid that will inform the management and implementation of future responses

 Evaluation of Concern Worldwide's Emergency Response Programme 2011DECPublished: August 2012Evaluation reports

This evaluation has focused on emergency response projects implemented between March and December 2011.

Concern Worldwide has contracted a team of independent consultants to carry out this evaluation with the intention of validating the appropriateness, timeliness, efficiency and effectiveness and to identify learning points and provide recommendations. This report is based on an analysis of data from documents, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), Key Informant Interviews (KII), field observations and discussions with Concern staff. 
 Evaluation of Ethiopia Drought Response 2011/12 Using Oxfam GB's Global Humanitarian Indicator ToolOxfamPublished: March 2012Evaluation reports

As part of a wider organisational undertaking to better capture and communicate the effectiveness of its work, a decision was taken for Oxfam GB to pilot a new evaluative method to assess the quality of targeted humanitarian responses.

This method uses a global humanitarian indicator tool which is intended to enable Oxfam GB to estimate how many disaster-affected men and women globally have received humanitarian aid from Oxfam GB that meets establishes standards for excellence. Equally importantly, it enables Oxfam GB to identify the areas of comparative weakness on a global scale that require institutional attention and resources for improvement.

This tool consists of 12 quality standards with associated benchmarks, and a scoring system. It requires documented evidence, complemented by verbal evidence, to be collected and analysed against these benchmarks. A score is generated for the programme’s results against each standard and as a cumulative total.

 

 Evaluation of Ethiopia Drought Response 2011/2012: Using Oxfam GB's Global Humanitarian Indicator ToolOxfamPublished: March 2012Evaluation reports

Oxfam GB had been working in Ethiopia for 30 years, implementing both development and humanitarian response projects. It was already working in the Oromia and Somali regions focusing on pastoralist livelihoods and commercializing agriculture. Oxfam affiliates also had a long-term presence. Oxfam Canada (OC), Oxfam America (OA) and Intermon (IO) all worked with local NGOs and Ethiopian civil society on development and humanitarian programmes including civil society capacity building, sustainable livelihoods, disaster risk management, WASH and livelihood programmes and humanitarian preparedness, agriculture, climate change and gender. Between them, the Oxfam affiliates had a presence in all severely drought-affected regions.

Oxfam GB, Oxfam Canada, Oxfam America and Intermon began scaling up their response in early 2011. Significant scale-up began in July 2011. Oxfam Canada, America and Intermon responded through their existing partners. Oxfam GB?s response was directly operational. It is Oxfam GB?s response that is the subject of this evaluation.
Oxfam?s immediate goal was to contribute to saving lives and minimizing the negative consequences of the drought on the livelihoods of affected communities in Somali, Oromia and Tigray regions and to support Somali refugees fleeing conflict and drought in the refugee camps of Dolo Ado. The planned beneficiary target was 1.5 million.

The programme response focused on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), Emergency
Food Security and Vulnerable Livelihoods (EFSVL). Advocacy was the third main planned
programme objective. Oxfam GB?s main project areas for the scaled up response were
Borena zone in Oromia region and the zones of Shinile, Liben and Afder in Somali region.
Oxfam GB provided WASH for the refugees in Hiloweyn, the 4th Dolo Ado camp in
Ethiopia?s Somali region.

 Evaluation of Humanitarian Action, Ethiopia, June/July 2012Save the ChildrenStarted: June 2012
Completed: August 2012
Published: 2012
Evaluation reports

The main focus of the evaluation is to examine the effectiveness of the programme in achieving its objectives, and identify the factors that contributed to any success and failures in achieving the objectives.

The purpose of the evaluation is to:

  • Assess the extent to which the projects of emergency response met their objectives and the technical strength of the programme
  • Measure the extent to which the response has been accountable to the affected population (specifically looking at children and their care-givers).
  • Recommend improvements for longer-term strategies, focusing on programme and management quality and accountability, and contribute to learning in a wider sense within the agency.
 Evaluation of Kenya Drought Response 2011/2012: Using Oxfam GB's Global Humanitarian Indicator ToolOxfamPublished: May 2012Evaluation reports

 

This evaluation uses a new methodology designed to enable Oxfam GB to estimate how many disasteraffected men and women globally have received humanitarian aid from Oxfam GB that meets established standards for excellence.

The methodology is based on a Humanitarian Indicator Tool consisting of 12 quality standards with associated benchmarks, and a scoring system (see Annex 2). It requires documented evidence, complemented by verbal evidence, to be collected and analysed against these benchmarks. A score is generated for the programme?s results against each standard, and as a cumulative total.To evaluate the Kenya response, the methodology comprised of the following steps:

  • Presentation of methodology and process to Kenya team.
  • Identification and provision of relevant documentation
  • Initial analysis of documentation and identification of gaps
  • Interviews/correspondence with staff and partners to obtain supplementary information.
  • Assessment of all evidence against the benchmarks
  • Submission of draft report to the Kenya team for review
  • Final analysis and completion of evaluative report.
 Evaluation of Neighbour in Need-funded Agencies' Response to the Horn of Africa Food CrisisCARE InternationalStarted: February 2012
Published: April 2012
Evaluation reports

Purpose and Objectives

The size of resources that have been generated by previous and the recent Neighbour in Need campaign require to provide evidence that those funds are used according to the foundation’s charter. Therefore the main purpose of this evaluation is to contribute to Neighbour in Need’s accountability towards its beneficiaries, partners and donors. The objective of this evaluation is to assess and document the capacities and structures of NiN partner organisations that received funding from the current Eastern Africa Appeal. Further it will assess the quality of the NiN funded agencies’ response to the Horn of Africa food crisis in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia in terms of adherence to international recognised standards (e.g. Sphere standards, Code of Conduct) and their own standards and procedures. It will highlight key lessons learned and provide recommendations for improving the emergency response for the remainder of the project duration (if applicable) and for improving emergency response for future humanitarian disasters.

The evaluation is scheduled at this particular point of time which lies within the implementation period of the majority of funded projects. This will enable the evaluator to get a better insight into local structures and cooperation with local partners and stakeholders as some partnerships might be temporary for this particular project.

The target audiences of the evaluation will be the foundation’s executive board as the decision body in order to assume its responsibility of obligatory supervision. Furthermore the evaluation results will enable the Council (Stiftungsrat) which is the advisory body to the executive board about the granting of funds in its future decision process. Beside this the evaluation will make recommendations about the improvement of processes and standards used by NiN partner organisations.

 Evaluation of Somalia Drought Response 2011/12 Using Oxfam GB's Global Humanitarian Indicator ToolOxfamPublished: February 2012Evaluation reports

As part of a wider organisational undertaking to better capture and communicate the effectiveness of its work, a decision was taken for Oxfam GB to pilot a new evaluative method to assess the quality of targeted humanitarian responses.

This method uses a global humanitarian indicator tool which is intended to enable Oxfam GB to estimate how many disaster-affected men and women globally have received humanitarian aid from Oxfam GB that meets establishes standards for excellence. Equally importantly, it enables Oxfam GB to identify the areas of comparative weakness on a global scale that require institutional attention and resources for improvement.

This tool consists of 12 quality standards with associated benchmarks, and a scoring system. It requires documented evidence, complemented by verbal evidence, to be collected and analysed against these benchmarks. A score is generated for the programme’s results against each standard and as a cumulative total.

 

 Evaluation of Somalia Drought Response 2011/2012: Using Oxfam GB's Global Humanitarian Indicator ToolOxfamPublished: February 2012Evaluation reports

Context of the drought and Oxfam’s response
A combination of drought, war, restrictions on aid organisations added to the widespread poverty that people experience throughout large parts of Somalia and pushed areas of the country into famine in 2011. While Oxfam has been working in Somalia for many years and had sought to respond to the drought as a category 2 emergency, it wasn’t until it was escalated to category 1 on 5 July 2011 that there was a significant scale-up in operations. Just 2-weeks later, on 20th July 2011 the United Nations (UN) declared that parts of southern Somalia (southern Bakool and Lower Shabelle) had met the technical criteria of famine.

Methodology
As part of a wider organisational undertaking to better capture and communicate the effectiveness of its work, a decision was taken for Oxfam GB to pilot a new evaluative method to assess the quality of targeted humanitarian responses. This method uses a global humanitarian indicator tool which is intended to enable Oxfam GB to estimate how many disaster-affected men and women globally have received humanitarian aid from Oxfam GB that meets establishes standards for excellence. Equally importantly, it enables Oxfam GB to identify the areas of comparative weakness on a global scale that require institutional attention and resources for improvement. This tool consists of 12 quality standards with associated benchmarks, and a scoring system. It requires documented evidence, complemented by verbal evidence, to be collected and analysed against these benchmarks. A score is generated for the programme’s results against each standard and as a cumulative total.

 Evaluation of the East Africa Drought AppealHumanitarian CoalitionStarted: July 2012
Completed: October 2012
Published: January 2013
Evaluation reports

 

The Overall purpose of this evaluation was to:
• Assess the overall impact of member agency interventions that were
funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the
Humanitarian Coalition.
• Confirm findings of the RTE conducted jointly with the Disasters Emergency Committee
in October-November 2011 and to evaluate to what extent lessons or recommendations
from the RTE have been taken into account and applied to programming.
• Assess gender dynamics of program impacts and how gender was factored in all areas
of the crisis response.
• Document a comparative analysis of best practices in cash-transfer programming in
affected communities, and the appropriateness of cash as a response.

 

 Evaluation of the East Africa Drought Appeal - Final Evaluation SomaliaHumanitarian CoalitionStarted: July 2012
Completed: October 2013
Published: January 2013
Evaluation reports

Agencies had designed their Cash Transfer Programmes (CTP) as the food security element of
wider, more integrated responses to affected communities. As such, the overall needs of the
beneficiaries were mostly addressed, allowing the cash elements to be used for the basic food
and non-food needs for which they were intended. The low level of the cash grants, set to match
the cost of a minimum food basket for an average family of five, restricted the ability of the CTPs
to fully meet household (HH) needs. Save the Children’s CIDA funded, integrated emergency
nutrition, health, water, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH) and shelter approach in
Mogadishu was a highly successful project. Education and a cash-based program aimed at food
security would also have highly benefitted the targeted community.


All aspects of the Save the Children, Oxfam, and CIDA-funded projects showed the hallmarks of
extremely well planned, partner implemented responses. All CTP technical design steps appear to
have followed best practice guidelines and satisfied SPHERE standards.

The trader and ‘Hawala’ (money transfer company) payment methods adopted were a particular
success and were especially well suited to context and beneficiary needs. Indeed the cash projects could be said to be exemplary in almost all aspects, including gender, which is a particular achievement given the challenging context, the new programming area of Puntland for Save the Children, and the relative lack of experience of the agencies and their partners in Somalia with cash programming.

The Save the Children and Oxfam CTPs were both deemed effective in having gone at least some way to meeting the food security needs of the vulnerable households targeted, the majority of whom were female headed households. The CIDA and HC funding was the initial ‘seed’ that allowed further and ongoing project developments4 that have gone on to respond to the immediate and recovery needs of beneficiaries.

 

 Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response in North Eastern KenyaSave the ChildrenStarted: May 2012
Completed: June 2012
Published: March 2012
Evaluation reports

The purpose of this evaluation is to measure of the effects of the post humanitarian emergency intervention in Northern Kenya within the first 7 months, and to draw clear recommendations for longer term programming.
Specifically, the evaluation will:

(i) measure the extent to which:

a. The projects within SC’s emergency response met their objectives,
b. The technical strength of the projects was ensured;
c. The response has been accountable to the needs of the affected population (specifically looking at children and their care-givers),

and (ii) Recommend improvements for longer-term strategies, focusing on programme quality, management, accountability to beneficiaries, and contribute to learning in a wider sense within the agency/ies.

 External Evaluation of ACF International's Response to the Horn of Africa CrisisACF - Action Against HungerCompleted: May 2012
Published: May 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives: 

To assess the deployment/scale up of ACF in response to the needs of the population in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia following the Horn of Africa crisis, its implications on ongoing activities and the longer-term impact of the crisis on ACF activities in the countries/region.

 Facilitation of After Action Review (AAR) for Emergency Response Programme in North East Kenya and DadaabCARE InternationalStarted: March 2012
Published: March 2012
After action & learning reviews

Overall objective:

CARE International’s current policy to conduct an After Action Review (AAR) 3 to 4 months after declaration of all Type 2 emergencies illustrates CARE’s commitment to continually improve its performance. The AAR is usually conducted as a two-day, structured, professional discussion of an emergency response to promote learning and accountability. The review focuses on performance, which enables those involved in the response to reflect on what happened and why; document the best practices, successes, challenges, and recommendations for what needs to change to sustain organizational strengths and improve on weaknesses in CARE Kenya’s emergency response programs. The purpose of an AAR is therefore to capture and learn from lessons identified during these discussions so that improvements can be made in CARE’s operational procedures, structures and policies. These may include recommendations to senior management in the country office, the lead member, CEG and other parts of CARE.

The specific objectives of the AAR are:

  1. To assess performance of CARE Kenya’s 2011 emergency response amongst staff and implementing partners so as to identify achievements and issues addressed to date; areas of collaboration and relationship management and the overall effectiveness of our interventions
  2. To identify positive and negative lessons learned (for CARE International in Kenya and other parts of CARE).
  3. To identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges and to make action-oriented recommendations to enhance CARE Kenya’s future emergency preparedness planning and response and CI approach to future quick onset emergencies.
  4. To ensure that lessons learned and specific recommendations inform future planning both in country and internationally.

Also the results of this AAR will be utilized in reviewing CARE Kenya’s Emergency preparedness planning (EPP) strategy and also provide important inputs into Long Range Strategic Plan (LRSP) review.

 Final Evaluation of Food Security Famine Response NRC SomaliaNRCStarted: June 2012
Completed: August 2012
Published: 2012
Evaluation reports

The main purpose of the final evaluation is to provide an independent assessment of the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and results of NRC’s food security response to the 2011 Somalia famine. It will also verify information contained in reports submitted to donors.

The evaluation results will inform ongoing food security work in Somalia as well as similar operations in other countries where NRC is present.

Its findings and conclusions will be shared with relevant donors, NRC Head Office (HO) in Oslo, the Core Competency Advisers, the Horn of Africa Regional Management Team, the South Central Somalia Area Office managers, and other interested partners.

 Final Evaluation Report of the Wet Feeding and Cash Transfer Project in Southern SomaliaDRC, ECPublished: March 2012Evaluation reports

 This evaluation report details the achievements of the ECHO funded Wet Feeding and Resource Transfer project implemented by Danish Refugee Council in Mogadishu and ended on March 30th. This synopsis precedes the details of the project and the evaluation as contained in the report.

The wet feeding component was a six (6) months’ continuation of preceding phases implemented since November 2007. The last phase of 2011 incorporated a resource allocation component, which provided households with Conditional Cash Transfers in order to allow them purchase their food and non-food items from local markets. The wet feeding component was implemented in partnership with SAACID and World Food Programme (WFP).The resource transfer component was implemented directly where DRC was part of a consortium of four NGOs implementing cash transfer project using a uniform approach. The consortium used the services of Oversees Development Institute (ODI), an external evaluator, to facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of this component.

The evaluation objectives sought to determine the extent to which the results were achieved, relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of the project in delivery of the services and appropriateness of the partnership strategies employed. The evaluation also sought to document lessons learnt from the project including learning points for exit to a more sustainable approach to food security.

 Follow-up Mission Report of the HAP 2010 Deployment to Dadaab Refugee OperationsHAP-IPublished: October 2010Research, reports and studies

 

During July – October 2010 the Humanitarian Accountability Partnership (HAP) International undertook a deployment to Dadaab Refugee Camps (northern Kenya) with the objective of increasing awareness and strengthening practice of humanitarian accountability. This deployment was jointly hosted by CARE and UNHCR with contributions from HAP, CARE, Danish Refugee Council (DRC), Save the Children, UNHCR and in-kind contributions from Lutheran World Federation (LWF) and Film Aid International (FAI). The HAP Roving Team was composed of Maria Kiani, HAP Roving Representative and Rita Mami, Gender Equity and Human Rights Officer Kakuma who was seconded by LWF as a contribution to towards the deployment. The overall aim1 for the deployment was to strengthen understanding and practice of humanitarian accountability and quality management with a particular emphasis on facilitating improved information sharing, participation and complaints handling (both at agency-specific and inter-agency level) for refugees and host-community in Dadaab. The three-month deployment to Dadaab ended with the establishment of the Dadaab Accountability & Quality Working Group committing to undertake collective efforts to strengthen accountability in the ongoing response, with some agencies drafted agency-specific action plans for improving internal accountability processes and procedures. Senior management and accountability focal points at Nairobi and head offices were debriefed on the key findings and recommendations (2010) to ensure wider interest and ownership for the outcomes and follow up actions of the of the deployment. This is a report of a follow-up mission of the three month deployment to Dadaab which was undertaken to review the progress made by the agencies and the ongoing efforts. It also makes recommendations for the overall response.

 Food Assistance Integrity Study: Analysis of the 2011 Drought Response in KenyaTransparency InternationalPublished: 2012Evaluation reports

 

This report is a product of the Transparency International Kenya (TI Kenya)
Humanitarian Aid Programme that aims to enhance integrity, accountability, efficiency and
cost effectiveness in the implementation of food assistance programmes in Kenya. The Food
Assistance Integrity Study was conducted in close cooperation with the main actors in the
sector, namely the Government of Kenya, United Nations, humanitarian and donor
organisations. It analyses: corruption risks pertaining to the policy framework, the aid
architecture, and the risks experienced throughout food assessments, programming and
support functions. It then makes concrete recommendations to the different actors involved
on how to improve governance in the food assistance sector.

 Food Crisis in the Horn of Africa: Progress Report July 2011-July 2012OxfamPublished: July 2012Evaluation reports

 

The 2011 drought across the Horn of Africa was,
in some places, the worst to hit the region for
60 years. It was first predicted about a year
beforehand, when sophisticated regional early
warning systems began to alert the world to the
possibility of drier-than-normal conditions in key
pastoral areas of Ethiopia, Somalia and Northern
Kenya, linked to the effects of the climatic
phenomenon La Niña.
These predictions were borne out by the failure
of the October–November rainy season in 2010.
When the following rains also failed in March–April
2011, louder alarm bells began sounding as a slide
into major crisis started to look inevitable. Yet
reactions were small-scale and patchy. No major
response was launched, even when the Kenyan
government declared the drought a national
disaster at the end of May. It was not until images
of the crisis appeared in global media, and the
United Nations declared a famine in two parts of
Somalia in mid-July, that international donors
suddenly woke up to its severity. By that time 13
million people were affected.

 From early warning to reinforcing resilience: Lessons learned from the 2011-2012 Sahel responseIASCPublished: November 2012Lessons papers
 Gender Equality in the East Africa Crisis ResponseDEC, Humanitarian CoalitionCompleted: January 2012
Published: January 2012
Evaluation reports

A real time evaluation of the East Africa crisis response
was carried out jointly by the UK Disasters Emergency
Committee (DEC) and the Canadian Humanitarian Coalition2
in late October-early November 2011. The areas of enquiry
were based on the DEC’s “Accountability Priorities”.
These included:
• Effectiveness and efficiency, including preparedness
and ability to scale-up appropriately;
• The quality of responses judged against established
standards, principles and best practice;
• The accountability of agencies to aid recipients;
and,
• The extent to which lessons had been learned from
previous responses, particularly regarding the link
between short and long-term dimensions of crisis
in this region.

 Gender Impact Analysis: Unconditional Cash Transfers in South Central SomaliaACF - Action Against Hunger, African Development Solutions, DRC, Save the ChildrenPublished: December 2012After action & learning reviews

 The Cash Consortium is a group of four NGOs (ACF, Adeso, DRC and Save the Children) that came together in mid-2011 to coordinate their aid response to the huge humanitarian needs
in South Central Somalia. The Cash Consortium has had a clear emergency mandate from the start; the overall aim of the Food Assistance for Vulnerable Households in South Central Somalia
(FAVHSCS) project is to meet basic food and non-food needs, through the provision of unconditional cash grants. Geographic, community-based and vulnerability targeting have been used to identify those most affected by the crisis, giving priority to female-headed households (FHHs).

In 2011-2012, the Cash Consortium has provided between 6 and 9 monthly cash transfers to over 40,000 households in the regions of Hiran, Gedo, Lower Juba and Mogadishu. As markets function well (with essential commodities regularly available throughout the crisis and no evidence of inflation linked to the programme), cash transfer programming (CTP) has proven to be an appropriate way to meet the humanitarian needs of affected populations in South
Central Somalia.

 Humanitarian Implementation Plan - Horn of Africa - Version 2ECHOPublished: August 2012Research, reports and studies
 IA RTE Kenya Management Response Matrix 2012 IASCCompleted: August 2012
Published: August 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives: 
The main objectives of IASC RTEs are to provide real-time feedback to the Humanitarian Country Teams, lesson learning for the future and to seek out the views of affected people on the quality of the response.

The IASC RTE aims to be a light and self-sufficient evaluation (i.e., with a footprint that does not unduly burden the country team) but will nonetheless provides a clear understanding of the key issues and challenges of the response through rigorous evidence-based analysis (triangulation, document analysis, key informant interviews etc.). Based on the assessment of the current situation, the IASC RTE will support the three HCTs and regional fora and mechanisms to develop and agree to clear plans of action to address key coordination problems or operational bottlenecks with the overall aim of enabling a more effective response moving forward. Its purpose is not to substitute for other evaluations that IASC members may conduct for their own purposes.

Focus:
The major thrust of the IASC RTE will be its focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of the coordination and management systems, and addressing critical issues related to both the provision of relief and to the transition to recovery.

 IASC Real Time Evaluation (IASC RTE) of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis - Ethiopia IASCCompleted: February 2012
Published: February 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives: 
The main objectives of IASC RTEs are to provide real-time feedback to the Humanitarian Country Teams, lesson learning for the future and to seek out the views of affected people on the quality of the response.

The IASC RTE aims to be a light and self-sufficient evaluation (i.e., with a footprint that does not unduly burden the country team) but will nonetheless provides a clear understanding of the key issues and challenges of the response through rigorous evidence-based analysis (triangulation, document analysis, key informant interviews etc.). Based on the assessment of the current situation, the IASC RTE will support the three HCTs and regional fora and mechanisms to develop and agree to clear plans of action to address key coordination problems or operational bottlenecks with the overall aim of enabling a more effective response moving forward. Its purpose is not to substitute for other evaluations that IASC members may conduct for their own purposes.

Focus:
The major thrust of the IASC RTE will be its focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of the coordination and management systems, and addressing critical issues related to both the provision of relief and to the transition to recovery.

 IASC Real Time Evaluation (IASC RTE) of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis - Kenya IASCCompleted: April 2012
Published: April 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives: 
The main objectives of IASC RTEs are to provide real-time feedback to the Humanitarian Country Teams, lesson learning for the future and to seek out the views of affected people on the quality of the response.

The IASC RTE aims to be a light and self-sufficient evaluation (i.e., with a footprint that does not unduly burden the country team) but will nonetheless provides a clear understanding of the key issues and challenges of the response through rigorous evidence-based analysis (triangulation, document analysis, key informant interviews etc.). Based on the assessment of the current situation, the IASC RTE will support the three HCTs and regional fora and mechanisms to develop and agree to clear plans of action to address key coordination problems or operational bottlenecks with the overall aim of enabling a more effective response moving forward. Its purpose is not to substitute for other evaluations that IASC members may conduct for their own purposes.

Focus:
The major thrust of the IASC RTE will be its focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of the coordination and management systems, and addressing critical issues related to both the provision of relief and to the transition to recovery.

 IASC Real Time Evaluation (IASC RTE) of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis - Somalia 2011-2012 IASCCompleted: May 2012
Published: May 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives: 
The main objectives of IASC RTEs are to provide real-time feedback to the Humanitarian Country Teams, lesson learning for the future and to seek out the views of affected people on the quality of the response.

The IASC RTE aims to be a light and self-sufficient evaluation (i.e., with a footprint that does not unduly burden the country team) but will nonetheless provides a clear understanding of the key issues and challenges of the response through rigorous evidence-based analysis (triangulation, document analysis, key informant interviews etc.). Based on the assessment of the current situation, the IASC RTE will support the three HCTs and regional fora and mechanisms to develop and agree to clear plans of action to address key coordination problems or operational bottlenecks with the overall aim of enabling a more effective response moving forward. Its purpose is not to substitute for other evaluations that IASC members may conduct for their own purposes.

Focus:
The major thrust of the IASC RTE will be its focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of the coordination and management systems, and addressing critical issues related to both the provision of relief and to the transition to recovery.

 IASC Real Time Evaluation (IASC RTE) of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis 2011: Regional Mechanisms and Support during the ResponseIASCPublished: June 2012Evaluation reports

 

As required under the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidelines, the
Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) called for an independent real time evaluation
RTE) of Inter-agency (IA) response to the food security crisis and famine in the Horn
of Africa during 2011. While the IASC conducted separate assessments (RTEs) of
the response in each of the severely-affected countries (Kenya, Somalia and
Ethiopia), it was felt that an assessment of the regional dimension of the response in
various countries will be in order, as this crisis had several cross-country issues
involved in build-up to the scaling up of humanitarian response. Several support
structures, processes and mechanisms in the region have had a bearing on the
country-led response, and this regional RTE was tasked to examine these in real
time. Specifically, the regional RTE focused on the following:
1. asses the added value of regional coordination mechanism and comment of
the regional structures and mechanisms that exist;
2. examine the leadership during the response in terms of bringing about
coherence, complementarity and synergy in different country-responses,
especially with regard to issues of cross-country nature; and
3. assess the systems and processes for flow of information and communication
between different countries on issues of direct relevance to the response in
each country.

 IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and KenyaIASCCompleted: December 2011
Published: June 2012
Evaluation reports

This synthesis report provides a short and immediately usable summary of real-time evaluation (RTE) lessons learned for the benefit of the wider global humanitarian system. It focuses on what worked well and what did not. It will be circulated widely to IASC agencies and stakeholders, and it is the first such synthesis of an RTE.

 Independent Evaluation of the AGIRE-funded Humanitarian Response to the East Africa DroughtAgenzia Italiana per la Risposta alle EmergenzeStarted: January 2012
Completed: May 2012
Published: May 2011
Evaluation reports

The main purposes of the evaluation are:

  1. Learning to enable AGIRE and its member agencies to learn from the response given in East Africa, in order to identify lessons for the future at the field and HQ level.
  2. Accountability ?? to provide an independent assessment of quality and appropriateness of the AGIRE-funded response immediately after its conclusion.
 Independent Evaluation of the Aktion Deutschland Hilft (ADH) Appeal for Eastern AfricaAktion Deutschland HilftPublished: 2012Evaluation reports

ADH plans an evaluation in order to serve the purpose of learning for improving the design and management of future projects and to demonstrate accountability to donors and beneficiaries.

The evaluation will examine the member organisations food aid projects' goals in Kenya in relation to project outcomes, as well as the LRRD (linking relief, rehabilitation and development) approach in terms of sustainability of the emergency projects.

The main aspects to be addressed in the evaluation are:

  • Efficiency: assess how inputs have been converted to outputs (qualitative and quantitative), with a main focus on food aid, and comparing different approaches; estimate the cost to supply approximately 2100 kcal/person/day
  • Effectiveness: assess the extent to which the project objectives were achieved with a special focus on the monitoring and evaluations methods (i.e. assessments, monitoring, surveillance) used in the different partner organisations; this should include a review in which way appropriate M&E tools were used in the implementation and running of the programmes
  • Connectedness: asses if and in which way the LRRD approach was already taken into account in the emergency phase of the Kenyan projects; evaluate the probable launch of LRRD projects as result of the emergency projects in terms of sustainability; is there evidence of a transition from relief/rehabilitatio/development in the projects; are exit strategies existing

The evaluation should review the effectiveness, efficiency and connectedness of ADH member organisations food aid programmes in Kenya, in order to identify gaps and to provide recommendations for further improvement of these programmes.

 Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response in South Central Somalia 2005-2010DARA International, IASCCompleted: December 2011
Published: December 2011
Evaluation reports

This is the report of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to South Central Somalia from 2005 to 2010. Somalia has experienced one of the world’s most protracted emergencies. More than two decades of conflict, combined with cyclical, slow, and fast-onset disasters, have caused displacements of millions of Somalis. In the absence of central government, few people have access to basic social services; hunger and famine are recurrent. Despite critical access and security constraints, the overall response was successful in some key areas such as food distribution, health, nutrition, water, and sanitation. In the period under review, there was no large-scale disease outbreak, even though millions of people fled from their homes in a very short period. There were a number of innovative features in the response, especially concerning remote management. Consolidated appeals and other key documents referred to the need to address root causes of recurrent vulnerabilities, but very little evidence exists that this has been done. The response in South Central Somalia has often been reactive, utilising supply-driven approaches that have most often focused on short-term humanitarian objectives. Comprehensive recovery responses have generally been insufficiently prioritised, even when security was stable and access possible. Despite isolated attempts, overall measures to mitigate the consequences of recurrent droughts have not been addressed sufficiently.

 Joint Evaluation Mission by the European Union and FAOFood Security and Nutrition Analysis UnitStarted: March 2012Evaluation reports

The objective of the evaluation is to provide an assessment of the relevance, appropriateness, efficiency, impact and coherence of the FSNAU programme with a view to informing future direction. Key questions to be answered by evaluators are:

  1. to what extent has food security and nutrition information and analysis produced by FSNAU been used (by decision makers, reserchers, implementing agencies and civil society Somali and no-Somali) and for what purposes?
  2. to what extent are FSNAU activities appropriate and tailored to local conditions and needs? Are they carried out taking longer-term development and humanitarian scenarios into account?
  3. has FSNAU and FAO created synergies between information system projects of FSNAU and SWALIM?
  4. to what extent has FSNAU contributed to improved knowledge on acute and chronic food insecurity and malnutrition and their root causes in Somalia.

The evaluation will also respond to specific questions that other donors might have.

 Joint Standards Initiative - Joint Deployment to the Horn of Africa October 2011 - January 2012HAP-I, People In Aid, Sphere ProjectStarted: October 2011
Completed: January 2012
Published: June 2012
Programme/project reviews

 In July 2011, HAP International, the Sphere Project and People In Aid called for greater quality and accountability1 in the humanitarian response to the Horn of Africa. An agreement between the three initiatives was made to collaborate on a joint deployment to the Horn of Africa to assist agencies in responding to the crisis. The overarching aim of the deployment was to support humanitarian agencies in providing accountable and appropriate programming that meets accepted standards of quality and accountability.


The objectives of the Joint Deployment were:

  • To identify and support the delivery of appropriate support and learning activities with humanitarian actors in order to strengthen their understanding of, and ability to apply, established quality and accountability mechanisms and approaches
  • To collaborate with relevant stakeholders and advocate for quality and accountability of the wider humanitarian response, including through raising awareness of existing approaches to Q&A and highlighting strengths and gaps observed to date
  • To document and share good practice and learning in order to build on the pool of resources available for senior managers and practitioners in the Horn of Africa and globally, and for use as part of wider discussions on the „state of? quality and accountability as part of current humanitarian response.

The Joint Deployment took place over a 9-week period between 27 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The underpinning concept of the Joint Deployment was to build on a process of taking account of key stakeholders, most importantly affected communities.

 Kenya Consolidated Appeal 2012 ReviewUN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: November 2011Programme/project reviews

In line with the 2011-2013 humanitarian strategy, the focus of the Emergency Humanitarian Response
Plan remains on assisting households to recover fully from recurrent shocks and hazards, through
offering immediate and medium-term food and non-food interventions that seek to mitigate urgent
needs while concurrently restoring livelihoods and building their resilience. Indeed the twin-track
approaches (which include improving disaster risk reduction to withstand climate change) will require
investment which has been particularly challenging, all the more because emergencies are taking place
at a much more frequent rate. However, disaster risk reduction approaches have proved more efficient
in the long term.

 Lessons from the 2011 famine in Somalia: key issues & challenges in humanitarian responseUN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: June 2012Presentations
 Management Response Plan for the Common Humanitarian Fund for SomaliaUN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsStarted: January 2012
Published: June 2012
Plans, policy and strategy

General recommendations on the Process (improving quality) and accountability.
 

 Mid-term evaluation of the Adaptation Learning Programme (ALP)CARE InternationalStarted: May 2012
Completed: December 2012
Published: May 2012
Evaluation reports

The purpose of the mid-term evaluation is to provide CARE International, the ALP team and ALP donors with an external analysis of ALP strategies, achievements and relevance which can be used to inform planning and decision making for the future of ALP and beyond. In particular, the mid-term evaluation will analyse and make recommendations on the ways and degree to which ALP is achieving learning among its external stakeholders, as demonstrated in:

  1. the difference ALP is making to the capacity of ALP communities and local governments to plan for and adapt to climate change,
  2. ALP engagement and influence in policy processes and
  3. ALP’s contribution to the national, African and global discourse on CBA learning and practice

In line with donor requirements, an external mid-term evaluation of ALP is required to assess ALP progress towards the log frame outputs, purpose and goals as well as key implementation strategies and make recommendations for improvements. Recommendations, with reasons, for the remaining 2.5 years of ALP and beyond, will propose changes to improve: the log frame, ALP relevance and accountability, approaches and methods, sustainability, up-scaling, effectiveness and efficiency.

 MPESA Project Analysis: Exploring the use of cash transfers using cell phones in pastoral areasMSFPublished: June 2012Programme/project reviews

Safaricom Limited, a mobile network operator in Kenya, launched a mobile money transfer system called M-PESA in 2007. This system allows users to send or receive money on their Safaricom SIM card.

Télécoms sans Frontières and Vétérinaires sans Frontières – Germany decided to work in partnership on the cash distribution system for Cash Transfer activities in pastoral areas in Northern Kenya. TSF was in charge of the electronic cash transfer component of RAPID (Response in Arid-lands for pastoralists in drought affected Kenya) project. After a successful pilot phase in Marsabit South District, this means of payment was extended to other projects in Turkana North and North Horr districts. A total of 1050 beneficiaries were paid through M-PESA for CfW activities.

This analysis, based on TSF and VSF-G experience, points out the appropriateness of the use of a cell phone payment system for Cash Transfer activities in pastoralist areas. It also shows the impact of this payment system for beneficiaries. Despite the challenges encountered mainly due to the remote environment and the new use of these technologies, the use of mobile money transfers compared to traditional cash distribution proves to be an efficient way of delivering assistance.

Information was mainly gathered during the pilot phase of the project from October 2011 to April 2012 in Laisamis district. An evaluation of the pilot project was carried out by VSF-G cash transfer expert, G. Bete, from 14 to 18 March 20121. It highlights that the pilot had a strong impact on beneficiary empowerment and sense of dignity.

 

 People First Impact Method - East Pokot District Exercise, Rift Valley Province, Kenya "Giving Voice to Disaster Affected Communities in East Africa" FAO, TROCAIREPublished: 2012Research, reports and studies

The objective of the People First Impact Method (P-FiM) (confer Annex 2) exercise in East Pokot was to give communities a voice. It records declarations of impact and measures the impact; positive, negative and neutral of interventions without agency or project bias. It sets out the attribution of positive, negative and neutral change alongside the drivers of impact. It informs agencies and other stakeholders (including communities, government, NGOs, faith groups, CBOs and private sector) of how the community view past and present impact differences and what is important for them. It adds to the body of material on quality and accountability and best practice to inform the humanitarian sector.

This is the third of three P-FiM exercises in Kenya funded by FAO carried out between 14 and 17 March 2012. The first was in Mwingi District, Eastern Province in January 2012 and the second in Turkana County, Rift Valley Province in March 2012.

 People First Impact Method - Facilitator's Toolkit Aidlink, Cordaid, Joffe Charitable Trust, Plan InternationalPublished: 2014Tools, guidelines and methodologies
P-FIM is a tool and an approach that gives communities a voice. It identifies the causes
of positive, negative and neutral change in their lives. It emphasises active listening,
understanding context; shared ownership and responsibility for improved response. The
exercise doubles as a personal and professional learning experience. P-FIM supports twoway accountability processes, assessment, evaluation, programme design, monitoring and evaluation, policy, strategy development and it operates to scale.
 People First Impact Method - Mwingi District Exercise, Eastern Province, KenyaFAO, TROCAIREPublished: June 2012Evaluation reports

This was the first of three People First Impact Method (P-FiM) (Cf. Annex 2) exercises in Kenya with two others completed in March 2012 in Turkana District and East Pokot, Rift Valley Province (please confer separate reports). The objective of the exercise was to give a voice to communities. It captured, measured and attributed declarations of impact; positive, negative and neutral of interventions by all stakeholders in selected areas without agency or project bias. Findings were presented at the Emergency Capacity Building (ECB II) Inter Active Conference in Kampala, Uganda on 1st and 2nd of February 2012.

While two years was the timeframe taken for review, discussion groups provided reference to impacts over a longer period.

 People First Impact Method - Turkana District Exercise, Rift Valley Province, KenyaFAO, TROCAIREPublished: June 2012Evaluation reports

The objective of the People First Impact Method (P-FiM) exercise in Turkana was to give a voice to communities in selected areas. It records declarations of impact and measures the impact; positive, negative and neutral of interventions by stakeholders without agency or project bias from the perspective of the community. It sets out the attribution of positive, negative and neutral change alongside the drivers of impact.

This is the second of three P-FiM exercises in Kenya. The first was completed in Mwingi District, Eastern Province in January 2012, and the third in East Pokot District, Rift Valley Province in March 2012.

 Process Review of the Common Humanitarian Fund for SomaliaUN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsStarted: January 2012
Published: 2012
Programme/project reviews

The first external review of the CHF-Somalia will be conducted by a third-party organization. It will look at both funding windows of the CHF: standard allocations and the emergency reserve, including emergency allocations. A major aim of the review will be to provide the Humanitarian Coordinator (HC), CHF Advisory Board, donors and recipients with the proper level of assurance around the achievement of planned results and operational effectiveness of the CHF mechanism. The review will also include realistic and actionable recommendations aimed at improving operational aspects of the CHF and will identify relevant policy issues which need to be addressed, either at the country level or the HQ level.

 Real Time Evaluation - 2011 East Africa Drought Response by CAFOD CAFODCompleted: January 2012
Published: September 2012
Evaluation reports

Objectives:

  1. To review the response against established criteria and recommend immediate changes that can improve the emergency programme.
  2. To promote a learning approach within CAFOD.
  3. To identify good practices and successes to use more widely and lessons learned in this response.
  4. To identify persistent weaknesses for organizational learning and recommend how they can be addressed.
  5. To identify the successes and limitations of CAFOD Ways of Working in Humanitarian Context and PCM in this response
 Real-time evaluation and rapid accountability review of CARE Somalia's response to the drought, food security and displacement emergency 2011 CARE InternationalStarted: March 2012Evaluation reports

The main purpose of the RTA is to assess the extent by which the projects contributed to alleviating suffering and improving the lives of the target populations (both positive/negative outcomes and impact) in relation to objectives set out in the various emergency program proposals. The evaluation is also expected to provide recommendations for improvements and future programming.

 Real-time evaluation of Ethiopia drought responseOxfamStarted: September 2011
Completed: September 2011
Published: October 2011
Evaluation reports

The Ethiopia RTE used the standard Oxfam benchmarks to evaluate the response. On timeliness it was found that Oxfam had been slow to respond although this was also the case with other actors as well. The results were fed back during a Day of Reflection and an action plan was drawn up to address the issues raised.

 Real-time evaluation of the Kenya drought responseOxfamCompleted: October 2011
Published: September 2011
Evaluation reports

The Kenya RTE used the standard Oxfam benchmarks to evaluate the drought response in all sites. Recommendations were made and presented during the Day of Reflection. This resulted in an action plan that will address the issues raised.

 Real-time evaluation: Somalia drought response OxfamCompleted: September 2011
Published: September 2011
Evaluation reports

The RTE used the standard Oxfam benchmarks to evaluate the response in Somalia. As in all the Horn countries, it was found that the scale-up could have been carried out earlier but once the programme had started, the coverage has been according to organisational standards.

 Review of Emergency Cash Coordination Mechanisms in the Horn of Africa: Kenya and SomaliaCaLP, Groupe URDPublished: May 2012Programme/project reviews

 

This study, which was commissioned by the CaLP, aims to review and document the six coordination mechanisms currently in place in Kenya and Somalia. It is part of a wider review of CTP coordination in emergency situations, which includes three case studies (Pakistan, Haiti and the Horn of Africa).

 Save the Children Evaluation of Humanitarian Action: Somalia Crisis Response April 2011-April 2012Save the ChildrenPublished: September 2012Evaluation reports

Programming to support children in Somalia is challenged by insecurity and remoteness, resulting in limited and changeable access, a high level of diverse and pre-existing vulnerabilities, low levels of service infrastructure, and cycles of natural disasters. Indicators that have been linked to food security and child survival began to decline in 2010, at which stage many actors, including Save the Children, began fundraising for and implementation of preventative programming; for several reasons, this initial push garnered less support than required. Save the Children declared the entire Horn of Africa region an emergency on 4th of July 2011, and as a significant media profile was raised, members and donors released funding to allow a scaled humanitarian response. Between July 2011 and October 2011, the response grew from £3 to 30 million, covering all seven Save the Children sectors (namely: Nutrition, Health, WASH, Shelter, Food Security and Livelihoods, Education in Emergencies, and Child Protection in Emergencies). This Evaluation of Humanitarian Action has focused on assessing the following three key elements of Save the Children's humanitarian response in Somalia covering the period April 2011 - April 2012. a. The extent to which the projects of emergency response met or are on-track to meet their objectives. b. The extent to which the response has been and continues to be accountable to the affected population (specifically looking at children and their care-givers). c. Recommending improvements for longer-term strategies as well as changes to make in real-time, focusing on programme and management quality and accountability, and contributing to learning in a wider sense within the agency.

 Somalia Consolidated Appeal 2011 ReviewUN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: November 2011Programme/project reviews

Despite a complex environment of conflict, clan rivalry and displacement, limited access in many parts of southern Somalia, and inadequate funding during the first half of the year, the humanitarian community managed to scale up its response mainly using local and international partners that have wide presence in the various regions. Mass vaccination campaigns reduced cases of measles by almost 50%. More than 2.6 million people received food aid and 1.2 million people had new access to clean water by October 2011. At the same time over 650,000 people received emergency assistance packages, and nearly 460,000 acutely malnourished children received nutrition interventions. In order to enhance resilience, more than 1.7 million people received livelihood support by October 2011. Tremendous efforts were made to meet the requirements, but given the exponentially increased needs over the past year as an additional 1.6 million people fell into crisis, compounded by continued extreme access limitations in the south, it was not possible to adequately meet all levels of need.
In order to address the immediate humanitarian needs of four million Somalis, the Somalia Humanitarian Country Team endorsed four strategic priorities:
? To provide life-saving assistance to people living in famine and humanitarian emergency in order to reduce mortality and prevent further displacement.
? To protect and restore livelihood assets through early recovery, resilience-building, emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction, and improving social and productive networks.
? To provide a minimum package of basic services.
? To strengthen the protective environment of the vulnerable population.

 Somalia Consolidated Appeal Mid-Year Review 2012UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: June 2012Programme/project reviews

 

Famine conditions are no longer present in Somalia, largely due to the on-going delivery of aid under extremely difficult conditions and the exceptional harvest at the beginning of the year. The humanitarian situation, however, is still critical. Over 2.51 million people remain in crisis, unable to fully meet their basic needs without assistance. Among the 1.5 million Somalis who are no longer in crisis, almost 1.29 million are in a stressed food security situation (?Phase Two? of the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification). They will risk sliding back into crisis without sustained assistance. Mortality and malnutrition rates in Somalia have improved dramatically, but remain among the highest in the world. An estimated 323,000 children are acutely malnourished, representing 22% of all under-five children.
The mid-year review undertaken by the Humanitarian Country Team for Somalia in May and June highlights that we must build on the gains made since famine was declared in July 2011 or they could be reversed. To prevent future shocks from developing into humanitarian catastrophes, we are asking donors to support our strategy to provide life-saving assistance to millions of Somalis and build sustainable livelihoods.

In response to the changes in the humanitarian context, the humanitarian community dropped the reference to ?famine? from its strategic priorities during the mid-year revision. Nonetheless, the strategic priorities largely remain unchanged. This reflects the enormous needs on the ground, as well the recognition that we must redouble efforts to build up Somalis‘ ability to cope with future shocks in the aftermath of the famine. The strategy focuses on providing life-saving assistance to people in crisis and emergency (Integrated Phase Classification Phases Three and Four), with special emphasis on households with malnourished children; resilience-building through livelihood support, especially for the ?stressed? populations; provision of integrated basic services to vulnerable populations; and strengthening the protective environment for civilian populations. The approach to assistance will be multi-sectoral and efforts will be made to scale up humanitarian and resilience-building interventions in areas that become more accessible.
Underlining the importance of producing a realistic and implementable plan for the rest of the year, the Humanitarian Country Team based its revised appeal on the needs of the Somali people and humanitarian organizations‘ capacity to deliver, recognizing the prevailing access challenges in parts of Somalia. The initial consolidated appeal 2012 requested US$1.52 billion.1 The revised appeal requests $1.16 billion to address the needs of 3.8 million people, comprising the 2.51 million people in crisis and emergency, and the 1.29 million who are in a stressed food security situation. Half (49.5%) of the requirements have already been provided, leaving an unmet requirement of $588 million.

 Somalia: An evaluation of WFP's portfolio 2006-2010WFPPublished: May 2012Evaluation reports

Objectives: 

This evaluation serves the dual objectives of accountability and learning. As such, the evaluation will:

  • assess and report on the performance and results of the country portfolio in line with the WFP mandate and in response to humanitarian challenges in Somalia (accountability); and
  • determine the reasons for observed success/failure and draw lessons from experience to produce evidence-based findings to allow the CO to make informed strategic decisions about positioning itself in Somalia, form strategic partnerships, and improve operations design and implementation whenever possible (learning).

The major emphasis of this evaluation will be upon the learning objectives.In addition, the evaluation design (see section 5) and security access issues are such that the evaluation of results against objectives will likely rely on secondary data and key informant interviews. There is indeed a wealth of data on certain operational indicators (see section 5), which will contribute to evaluating results. The evaluation will particularly add value in its assessment of risk management, due diligence, contribution to governance, stability and institutional development, where there have been limited data.

 Temporary Shelter and Hygiene Promotion Project in Galkaiyo, Puntland, 2011NRCStarted: November 2010
Completed: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Evaluation reports

The area around the town of Galkaiyo, southern Puntland, there are (Nov 2010) almost 60.000 displaced people living in very basic and difficult conditions in 21 spontaneous settlements. This SIDA- funded project aimed to work with a target group of 2000 of the most vulnerable households, (12.000 persons) supporting them with temporary shelter and a range of hygiene inputs. In a context beset by security constraints and a continuing influx of newly displaced people, the identification of the most vulnerable, has been challenging, however, critical in order to reach those with the limited resources available. Shelter is needed upon arrival, so timing was critical, but hard to fulfil.

 The 2010-2011 post-drought situation analysis with special reference to Turkana & Wajir CountiesOxfamPublished: August 2010Evaluation reports

 

In July-Aug. 2012, Oxfam commissioned a post-drought situation analysis of northern Kenya, with specific reference to Turkana
and Wajir counties. The objective of this assessment was to understand the implication of the poor performance of the April-
June 2012 rains in most parts of northern Kenya; provide an outlook of the remaining part of the year (Sept.-Dec. 2012) and an
assessment of people’s vulnerability to drought, including the needs on the ground. Extensive consultations were made in
Nairobi with Government, UN Agencies, NGOs and Donors, but also with County level stakeholders-DSG members and
communities in different parts of the two counties.

 “Like a good trip to town without selling your animals”: A study of FAO Somalia’s Cash for Work programmeFAOPublished: June 2013Evaluation reports

This report is the result of a study of FAO Somalia’s cash for work interventions implemented after the 2011 crisis, mainly based on fieldwork conducted in 7 villages of the Gedo region, South Central Somalia from October 18 to November 15, 2012. The study was commissioned as part of the evaluation of FAO’s cooperation with Somalia, to gain an understanding of the effects of CFW assistance on beneficiary households and communities. The overall Somalia country evaluation was undertaken over the second semester of 2012 and assessed the totality of FAO’s assistance to the country. It aimed at:

1) identifying success factors and challenges for learning purposes for the FAO Somalia programme and FAO at the corporate level;

2) providing accountability to donors and to the respective government authorities; and

3) maximizing the strategic relevance and effectiveness of FAO’s engagement in the country.